Voice as Touch, and Other Musings

By Lina Amy Hack, Certified Advanced Rolfer®, and Ellen Freed, Rolfing® SI Instructor, Rolf Movement® Practitioner
October 2023

ABSTRACT The tongue and voice are inextricably linked, as Rolfing SI Instructor Ellen Freed discovered firsthand when her tongue temporarily swelled for a few days preventing speech. Applying her cannon of knowledge to the situation, Freed researched tongue anatomy and physiology, while also experimenting with Rolf Movement-inspired vocal exercises. In this interview, Freed reviews her findings that have influenced her wellness practices and how she approaches visceral cranium work with her clients.

The tongue is the sprout of the heart.

– Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine saying (2012).1

Figure 1: (A) Superior view of the tongue and lateral view of the oral cavity. (B) Organization of the oral cavity between the nasal airway and the mouth foodway. (C) Boundaries of the oral cavity. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers Incorporated, 2023.

Lina Amy Hack: Hi Ellen, I have asked to interview you for our July 2023 theme – Our Face, Our Voice, and Our Words – because of the self-experimentation story you told in our Dr. Ida Rolf Institute® (DIRI) continuing education class with Aline Newton [DIRI instructor] and Rebecca Carli-Mills [DIRI instructor] last year (Fall 2022). It was illuminating hearing you speak about your tongue and voice experience. Thank you for taking the time to share these insights with our readership. Let’s start with, how did you lose your voice?

Ellen Freed: I appreciate you asking me to share my story here. As with all illnesses and injuries we Rolfers experience, something valuable arises that applies to our work and our lives. This experience was magnified for me because it occurred in the context of our ongoing class with Rebecca and Aline, and we were diving deep into Rolf Movement topics.

I have lupus2, and with lupus, every now and again, I get these weird symptoms. So, one day, my tongue swelled up to about twice its normal size, and I could not move it in order to form words or produce speech-like sounds. I was alarmed, but as the first day went by, I realized I could swallow fluids and breathe. I wondered how on earth that was happening, and suddenly, my tongue became very, very interesting.

Figure 2: Table listing intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue. (A) The left lateral view of the tongue with the jaw muscles. (B) Coronal cross-section of the tongue showing the muscles of the tongue. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers Incorporated, 2023.

LAH: What a stressful situation.

EF: Yes. Luckily, the swelling went away within four or five days. My airway was open, and the pharynx and soft palate weren’t swollen, just the anterior tongue. So, I pulled out the anatomy books. I had focused on the muscles, ligaments, fascial layers, and bones of the face and jaw over the years to inform my work, but I had not studied the tongue for a long time – and wow, there was so much that I had glossed over.

I had a few realizations that seem obvious now. The first was how everything, with emphasis on everything, in our body and in our interaction with the world is in relation to the tongue (Bordoni et al. 2018). All of our bodily senses are anatomically connected to the tongue: gustatory, vision, olfactory, tactile, auditory, proprioception, and vestibular. The tongue is essential for digesting, swallowing, speaking, and breathing. There are five cranial nerves and branches innervating tongue function. Blood supply and lymph flow into and out of the tongue.

Your tongue is connected through the fascias to your pericardium, then into the many fascial layers of the thorax and abdomen (Paoletti 2006). The tongue connects through its fascias into the cranium and the mimetic muscles3 of the face. It is fascially connected right to the feet. It is connected to every aspect of our lives. The tongue is a bridge to and from our internal organism to the external world, licking, tasking, breathing, sensing, touching, swallowing, and communicating.

So that blew my mind.

Figure 3: Table listing innervation of the tongue muscles (Dotiwala and Samra 2022). Brain stem locations of cranial nerves, specifically CN III to CN XII. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers Incorporated, 2023.

Meanwhile, in the class with Rebecca and Aline, we were deeply exploring Hubert Goddard’s [French Rolfer] tonic function model and chapters from Aline’s forthcoming book.4 We were studying premovement and exploring our perceptual awareness. This class guided me to a different understanding of the human tongue and vocalization and helped me find creative ways to work with my own voice, tongue, and speech.

LAH: And that was valuable to hear. You dug into your anatomy books, and to supplement our chat here, I have some tongue and oral cavity images (see Figure 1). What anatomy details helped you sort out understanding your issue? What do you think was happening to your system when you lost your voice?

EF: I do not understand lupus – it is an unpredictable inflammatory response to threats that do not exist, causing my body to attack itself. In this case, my body thought my tongue was a threat, and the immune system went to work swelling my tongue along with some other symptoms.

There was a lot to contemplate: how and why the inflammatory process targeted my tongue, my voice, and my ability to communicate. These lupus experiences create interesting life curricula if I am able to take it on. I’ve developed personal tools and theories drawn from Rolfing Structural Integration (SI) and other somatic work, and I have support from my family and close, wise friends who are inspiring. They help keep my curiosity alive during difficult flares.  

I was not in a place to work through the meaning behind this flare at the time, so I began exactly where I started in my Rolfing SI education all those years ago – by looking in the anatomy books.

Figure 4: Ellen Freed: . . .  mimetic muscles can set a whole tone in our body and are a way for us to express what we are thinking. [Photo by Patrick Fore on Unsplash.]

LAH: Ah, yes, let’s also look at the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue in Figure 2.

EF: The tongue is a complicated structure, but simple in its muscularity. The body of the tongue is bilateral with a set of eight intrinsic and extrinsic muscles on either side of the midline. The intrinsic muscles run along vertical and horizontal lines, beginning within one fascia and then inserting into another fascia, with no bone involvement. The extrinsic muscles are attached to three bones: the hyoid, the mandible, and the styloid process. The muscles are all separated by connective tissue in the form of septums, allowing each muscle to do its own job when coordinating movement for speaking, swallowing, and breathing.

The root or back of the tongue attaches to the hyoid bone and into the floor of the mouth, also known as the “diaphragma oris.”5 The floor of the oral cavity is created by two of the four suprahyoids between the medial mandible and hyoid, the mylohyoid and the geniohyoid. The other two suprahyoids are lateral, the digastric with two bellies slings around the hyoid via a tendon into the mandible and the mastoid process of the temporal bone. The styloid, superior to the digastric, arises from the styloid process of the temporal bone and attaches to the lateral hyoid. The underside of the tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth by the lingual frenulum. These muscles are in deep coordination with the muscles of the tongue, mouth, and face acting to elevate the hyoid bone necessary for swallowing and opening the mouth. The epiglottis is just behind the root of the tongue and above and anterior to the larynx.

The array, directionality, and attachments of these muscles allow us to move our tongues. The intrinsic muscles of the tongue shorten and widen, lengthen and narrow, and curl and flatten. The extrinsic muscles allow us to stick our tongue out and bring it back in, elevate and depress the sides, and elevate the back of the tongue. The root of the tongue and the epiglottis are coordinated so the epiglottis will stay upright while breathing, and will fold back over the trachea and larynx while swallowing allowing food and liquids to enter the esophagus only.

The tongue, the lungs, the larynx, the pharynx, structures in the mouth and neck, lips, mimetic muscles, and mandible position, quickly change to form complex and distinct shapes for vocalization, swallowing, breathing, and as gatekeepers to the pharynx, esophagus, and nose.

The cranial nerves nested in the brain stem tell a multidimensional story of the staggering amount of complexity and resource we bring forth when speaking, singing, breathing, or swallowing. Experiencing this tongue swelling gave me a first-hand view of how these structures all work together to inform me about my world. All movement and expression of the face, head, mandible, neck, eyes, and tongue are together, allowing us to feel what is happening. The bundle of closely associated cranial nerves works together to taste and swallow, regulate the cardiac and digestive function, and hear and balance, informing how we process the world. Think about how integral digestion and speaking are for people.  

Of the twelve paired cranial nerves, two of them are innervating the tongue for movement (see Figure 3). The hypoglossal (CN XII) innervates all the tongue muscles except the palatoglossus muscle, which is innervated by the vagus nerve (CN X). The styloglossus is innervated by both the hypoglossal and vagus nerves (Dotiwala and Samra 2022).

The cranial nerves that innervate the tongue for taste, a special sensation, are the facial nerve (CN VII) and the glossopharyngeal (CN IX), whose combined efforts cover the entire tongue. The vagus nerve (CN X) innervates the epiglottal region for taste. The vagus nerve (CN X) and the trigeminal nerve (CN V) also innervate the tongue for general sensation (temperature, touch, and pressure) of the epiglottis and tongue, respectively.

The cranial nerves innervating the tongue arise from the brain stem. In fact, ten of the twelve cranial nerves arise from this tightly packed region of the hindbrain. The brain stem regulates, integrates, and coordinates information back and forth between the cerebral cortex and our body. All of our physiological functions necessary for survival, balance, movement, consciousness, sleep, behavior – and the list can go on – arise from this small part of our head.

LAH: Yes, that is cool to think about. The origins of those nerves in the brain stem are so close to each other, carrying important motor and sensory information. I can’t say I’ve thought about it in this way, focusing on the tongue anatomy and innervation.

EF: It is so cool to think about.

LAH: Tell us more about what you focused on learning about the tongue. What kind of inquiry did you make with premovement?

EF: This question is so interesting. Because the tongue is entwined with so much of who we are, I found it difficult to track where my awareness began and where the movement was initiated. Because I could not speak out loud, I visualized speaking, yet words felt too complex. So, I simplified my expectations and visualized reciting the alphabet to myself. I visualized speaking each letter slowly (without efforting to make a sound) and made this an ongoing meditation.

Each letter had a different somatic preparation and a different movement pathway. I began by tracking how my tongue wanted to move, what shape the soft palate took, the position of the back of my tongue, the floor of my mouth, and the movements in my lips and mimetic muscles that helped shape the sound of each letter.

After a couple of days of this, I began to feel how the breath moved from the lungs through my larynx, affecting the tone and effort of my diaphragm, and I would pay attention to the area of the diaphragm where the esophagus and the vagus nerve pass through. I watched what wasn’t moving. I noticed my relationship to the ground shifted with each letter. Taking time to visualize each letter of my native language allowed me to experience how these sounds evoked sensations, feelings, emotions, and awareness of my past and present.

Once I could speak again, the movement pathways of each letter were very similar to the visualizations, with the exception of the actual shapes my tongue, larynx, mouth, and facial muscles made to create the sound of each letter.

LAH: I’m trying that right now, I’m thinking about the sound of ‘A’, which has different face/mouth gestures than when I think about saying ‘B’.

EF: How does your body shift to shape the sound you are visualizing? Where is the premovement of speaking each letter?

LAH: Gosh, there is a lot of premovement. At this moment, I feel preparatory tongue gestures that feel like they are ‘clearing the way’ for making a sound. Swallowing-like movements. And then ‘A’ feels like my tongue wants to move forward in my mouth, yet ‘B’ feels like a pullback. It is hard to describe.

EF: I loved contemplating it. What I decided back then, and I am always open to changing my mind, is that the premovement of most everything I do starts in my tongue and throat. When I breathe, or move into or away from something, I do some sort of preparation and shifting in the mouth and tongue.

Take a look at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) videos of people speaking and singing on YouTube. I recommend watching the MRI video by Tyley Ross, a voice expert in New York, which shows him singing in four different styles of voice.6 The athleticism and shape-making of his tongue, soft palate, epiglottis, pharynx, and larynx are beautiful. It’s incredible to see this anatomy in action. It is also interesting to compare trained voices to untrained voices and see the difference in shape and movement.

As many performers, singers, and speech therapists know and teach, what the Ross MRI video illustrates, is that we have the ability to change these shapes and vary our vocal projection with practice.

With my swollen and silent tongue, spending time to access and map my impressions, perceptions, and responses in combination with the study of this anatomy helped me. With each imagined letter sound, I experienced what flowed from there, noticed what was not working, and learned a few patterns I had been unaware of. And all of that held a possibility for change.

LAH: Change and learning. It sounds like you were accessing an enriched motor and sensory field of all possibilities. This makes me think about how our tongues make different gestures depending on what language we learned as infants.

EF: Exactly. These tongue movements are, in part, about our native language. Kathleen Wermke, PhD, a prespeech researcher in Germany, has found that human fetuses can memorize sounds in the external world by the third trimester (Mampe et al. 2009, Wermke et al. 2016). After birth, babies could produce what she calls “cry melodies,” but prefer the “melody patterns” of what they heard in utero. She tracked the difference in the cries of babies born to French and German speakers. Indeed, the different languages produced different cries.

Wermke recently published a paper on developmental melody complexity over the first six months of life, tracking how intonation and melody become more complex and how babies’ voices can change from a cry to sounds more speech-like as the supralaryngeal structures develop (Wermke, Robb, and Schluter  2021). All of this points to how our function and structure are intertwined, and that vocal development, perception, and behavior shape us.

My native language, English, isn’t a very complicated tongue language. We are a sagittal language. We aren’t clicking and curling our tongues. English doesn’t have us making sounds in the back of our throats or rolling letters. Even so, what we do with our tongue and our soft palate and larynx is that we make shapes.

LAH: That brings us back to the structures of the mouth, how the bones and soft tissues are dynamic and make different shapes.

EF: Yes, exactly. Everything is connected to the tongue! We largely make our vocalizing sounds on an exhalation of air, shaping the emerging air with the structures of the mouth. We use our mimetic muscles – make a face – as the vocalization happens. The tongue is deeply interrelated to our mimetic muscles which are often necessary for us to produce particular sounds, as well as the ways we express ourselves. The set of facial expressions will reflect our native language and the way that we speak. Further, these mimetic muscles can set a whole tone in our body and are a way for us to express what we are thinking and even something to explore in somatic therapies (see Figure 4).

LAH: Tell us about the fascial planes that drew your attention while you were studying and doing these tongue explorations.

EF: I love the book, The Fasciae, by Serge Paoletti (2006). In the section, “Fasciae of the Central Axis” (Paoletti 2006, 74-83) he describes flowcharts that illustrate the flow of the fascias from the pharynx that goes into the palatine bones, into the maxillae, into the pterygoids, and into the dura mater of the skull. The fascia runs into the mid- to the deep-cervical fascias, and continues to the diaphragm. Once we get to the diaphragm, we can also trace these fascias down to the feet and throughout the body. These fascial planes are webbing together our organs of speech into the function and structure of our bodies. The neurology of our self-expression and speech is beautiful in every way.

LAH: So true.

EF: All of these influences create the unique prosody of our voices. Our tone, rhythm, melody, articulation, pitch, loudness, emphasis, and silence create the effect our voice puts out into the world and reflects how we are taking the world in.

LAH: I’m marveling at this curious moment of direct learning you had with this tongue swelling experience.

EF: It was a marvel, Lina, with all sorts of realizations around how I move about in my own head while speaking, and how I move in the world while speaking. I began to be able to track the mechanism of the flow of my own voice.

Also, we have many voices. One way to look at it is that we have an inner voice or voices where we are thinking to or at ourselves. This internal talking is quite audible to us in our thoughts. We translate the inner voice through our body into an external voice. Speech becomes the sound we give out to our environment, and that sound can change depending on what we want to express. All the while, the internal voices are doing what they do. Speech and interacting with the outer world are only part of our voice and what we are doing with it.

Breath is, of course, an important component of speaking. An interesting meditation is to pay attention to the prosody (patterns of rhythm embedded in the sound of speech) of your spoken voice in coordination with the inhalation, exhalation, and pause of each breath. You can also track your inner voice in coordination with breathing.

If you are thinking while you inhale, preparing your words during your in-breath, it’s more likely that your voice will have a higher frequency sound and perhaps a sense of anxiousness or rush while speaking right away on the out-breath. Compare that with thinking about what you will say during one full breath: inhale, exhale, and pause. By giving our inner voice a full breath, the thought can settle and resonate before we begin a cycle of breathing again, and then say the words out loud. This is a very different experience, and perhaps a clue as to how to speak in an embodied way. The resultant sound is more likely to be lower, in your normal register, and you are more likely to experience ease with your words when they are finally said. This is related to polyvagal theory and how the vagus nerve is engaged more robustly while we exhale – engaging the parasympathetic state of rest and digest (Porges 2017).

When I have thoughts that are flowing with my breath, there is a distinct difference in my inner and outer voices. This is what I love about Rolfing SI, everything has shape, form, function, rhythm, and ability to change. We only need to find our awareness of what is happening in our own way and time.

LAH: Yes, that is so evocative, the shapes of speech and sounds being a result of this complex tongue and mouth anatomy. What was it like when your tongue recovered from this flare?

EF: When I finally was able to speak, I was a different speaker. I was more aware of the shapes my thoughts and body were making for my voice.

I came upon a beautiful paper written by Alice LaGaay, PhD, exploring voice in philosophy (unknown). She explored many aspects of voice and included along with prosody, the ethics, the emotions, the intent, and the community of the human voice. She wrote:

“A voice is both individual and communal: On the one hand, every human voice is unique, no two voices are ever quite the same. In this sense every voice is the signature of an individual. Yet on the other hand, no voice ever resonates alone but emerges as a singular current brought about within a sea of other mimetically interwoven voices. Thus, every voice, each particular grain, is not only constituted through interaction with other voices, but as a result of this process, it also contains uncanny traces of a company of others. In a voice, that which is most personal cannot therefore be quite separated from that which is shared. Again, though now from a slightly different perspective, an ethical contour appears to define the phenomenon.” (LaGaay unknown, 5).

When my tongue swelled it was not just access to my voice that I temporarily lost. I could not share my voice, my signature, I could not relate to others or translate my inner voice. Without my voice, I couldn’t participate in my relationships. It made me very aware of how with our voices, we reflect ourselves in our relationship with each other and the larger world.  

I became aware that voice is an integral part of our kinosphere.7 When I was voiceless, my kinosphere was changed, I shrunk in on myself, and I could not reach the world with my whole self. What I could send out into the space around me was silence, along with my inner voice, this creates a different kinosphere. I became acutely aware of how we use the spaces between our sounds to communicate. The silence together with sound creates a resonance that is very different from just silence or just sound. So the space around me and the space I could move into was very different without my voice.

LAH: Did you do any direct work with your tongue during that time? What kinds of things did you gravitate to doing?

EF: Absolutely! I worked towards my tongue by directly contacting the mimetic muscles of my face, the platysma, and cranial fascias. And then I worked with the structures of my neck around the hyoid, the mandible, and the temporal area into the occiput and the muscles towards the back of my neck.

When my tongue was swollen, I palpated but did no direct work. Once the swelling decreased, I began to slowly work on the body of the tongue, the shape of my mouth, and the attachments.

I started simply: Can the tongue go straight out? Can it go side to side? Can it go up? Can it go down? Can I bring it back? What, where, and how am I sensing my tongue? While I was doing these movements, I kept a hold of my hyoid bone, tracking where I felt the efforts of motion from the inside of my mouth and from my body.

Tongue movement, like a lot of movement, is linked up and coordinated with our eyes. So, similar to how we add eye motion to our back and neck work, I added moving my eyes along with moving my tongue. You can start simply by moving your eyes in the same direction as your tongue. Then you can try moving your eyes and tongue in opposite directions. Once that feels easy, explore the eye/tongue movements in all directions. Once that feels easy, do all this while moving your head around! This practice helps bring awareness and function to chronic and unconscious movement patterns in the eye and tongue (See Figure 5).

Figure 5: EF: You can start simply by moving your eyes in the same direction as your tongue. Then you can try moving your eyes and tongue in opposite directions. Once that feels easy, explore the eye/tongue movements in all directions. [Photo by Ibadat Singh on Pexels.]

LAH: Our readers won’t be able to see that I’m doing these as you are saying them, I invite them to try this too. The tongue and eye movements at the same time are hard to do.

EF: It is hard! In speech therapy, there is an effort to coordinate lips, and the mimetic muscles with breath and sound (Green et al. 2000).

LAH: That is interesting. Does stress lift these structures up?

EF: These physical structures are constrictors, and when our stress levels are high, lifting the hyoid and larynx, makes it difficult to speak and sometimes swallow.

LAH: That makes sense, for just what I’m feeling while doing these tongue movements. What kind of tongue work is a part of your ‘Seventh Hour’?

EF: Yes. It is essential in a ‘Ten Series’ to differentiate the tongue and structures involved with tongue function. Often the structures have become invisible to us, so bringing awareness to them creates a possibility for different experiences moving and living in our bodies, not to mention with our breathing, eating, speaking, etc. The mouth work can be profound, if only for clients to feel and sense the shape and structures of their mouths.

I was fortunate to be in a class with Jan H. Sultan [Advanced Rolfing Instructor] a long time ago. He had me stick my tongue out while he was doing some fascial work with my chest. That was a direct experience of the connection from my tongue into my pericardium, into the diaphragm, and beyond all that stuff. At the same time, Jan was telling the class that he had a direct connection to my brain. My whole head and being felt different afterwards. My thorax was over my pelvis and my feet were on the ground in a deeply relational way. And then, sure enough, Paoletti’s book came out after that and it describes those connections so clearly.

LAH: What does it mean to have an embodied tongue?

EF: I love this phrase. Embodied tongue has to be a verb, as it changes from moment to moment in response to our inner and outer worlds.

People who can embody their tongue in the world are often the good teachers, performers, and cooks – those people whose presence, way of speaking and moving, creates something with dimension, meaning, and integrity, like a deep transmission from them to us. Love and friendship can also let us experience the other with an embodied tongue. Listening is essential for an embodied tongue, the listening informs the body how to make the connection from one
to another.

Have you ever heard the Poetry Unbound podcast by Pádraig Ó Tuama (The On Being Project 2023)? This man has embodied his tongue. In these podcasts, he reads a poem, he speaks about the poem, and then he reads it again. With his Irish accent and how he metabolizes each phrase of the poem, he digests it and then speaks about what the poem can mean. It is profound when he rereads the poem with full body (Apple Inc. 2023). He is an example of a person who can embody his tongue and the words he speaks. Everything he says has a shape; the sound itself has meaning and feels like a full transmission.

LAH: How has this experience informed your work with your clients?

EF: I watch how my client’s voices physically arise from their bodies and notice how I respond. Centering voice and sound, there is a whole set of information about how they are and how I am that day. It is part of how I realize the tone of the emotional relationship I’m going to have with this person for the session. People are not always the same session to session, paying attention in this way gives me more clues about what is happening in the here and now for our work together.

LAH: Insightful.

EF: This brings us back to how I began to think of voice as touch. Voice is haptic. We use our voices in our unique ways, reaching out into the world, towards something, revealing the feel of that relationship.

LAH: Well, your voice has touched me and got me thinking about my tongue, mouth, and sounds more deeply. Thank you again for sharing this personal story so we can all learn from it.

EF: Lina, thank you for creating this safe space to tell my story.


1. The tongue is the sprout of the heart. Mentioned as early as 652 CE to Sun Simiao's translation of Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces: Treatise on Heart and
, read more from https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/9789813239302_0001. Another interesting deep dive into the relationship between the heart meridian and the tongue can be found in Nancy Holroyde-Downing's thesis, On Origins and Transmission of a System of Tongue Diagnosis, available from https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10040369/1/Holroyde-Downing_10040369_thesis.pdf.

2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most common type of lupus (CDC 2022). It is an autoimmune disease where the cells of the immune system that normally only attack and destroy foreign cellular material, those cells mistakenly attack the healthy tissues of the body, which leads to widespread inflammation, tissue damage, and organ problems. Also vulnerable are the joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys, and blood vessels. While there is no cure for lupus, medical care and preventative care can significantly improve function and quality of life. People with SLE have a wide range of symptoms and severity that can flare into serious episodes, and at other times, symptoms can be manageable. Some people experience periods of remission in between the SLE flares throughout their life.

3. Mimetic muscles are the muscles of facial expression (Westbrook et al. 2022). They are considered an extension of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system of the face – a fascial plane deep to the subcutaneous tissue but superficial to the muscles of mastication. It runs from the platysma in the neck up to the galea aponeurotic and temporoparietal fascia under the scalp.

4. Aline Newton’s writing projects can be found at http://alinenewton.com.

5. For a detailed view of the root of the tongue attachment to the hyoid bone, go to https://www.imaios.com/en/e-anatomy/head-and-neck/oral-cavity?mic=mouth-oral-cavity-illustrations&afi=18&is=2822&il=en&l=en&ul=true.

6. YouTube video “Singing in the MRI with Tyley Ross – Making the Voice Visible” available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3TwTb-T044., and for more about Tyley Ross (https://www.tyleyrossvoice.com/about).

7. Kinosphere is a term that Rolfers use to describe the three-dimensional near space around a person’s body.

Ellen Freed is a faculty member of the Dr. Ida Rolf Institute® and has been a member of the Rolfing Institute® since 1990. She maintains a private practice in Delaware. Freed loves this work, her practice, her life, and the classes she is fortunate enough to teach.

Lina Amy Hack, BS, BA, SEP, became a Rolfer® in 2004 and is now a Certified Advanced Rolfer (2016) practicing in Canada. She has an honors biochemistry degree from Simon Fraser University (2000) and a high-honors psychology degree from the University of Saskatchewan (2013), as well as a Somatic Experiencing® Practitioner (2015) certification. Hack is the Editor-in-Chief of Structure, Function, Integration.


Apple Inc. 2023. “Poetry Unbound.” Available from https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/poetry-unbound/id1492928827.

Bordoni, Bruno, Bruno Morabito, Roberto Mitrano, Marta Simonelli, and Anastasia Toccafondi. 2018. The anatomical relationships of the tongue with the body system. Cureus 10(12):e3695.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2022. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Available from https://www.cdc.gov/lupus/facts/detailed.html.

Dotiwala A. K., and N. S. Samra. 2022. Anatomy, head and neck, tongue. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507782/.

Green, Jordan R. Christopher A. Moore, Masahiko Higashikawa, and Roger W. Steeve. 2000. The physiologic development of speech motor control: Lip and jaw coordination. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing 43(1):239-255.

LaGaay, Alice. unknown. “Voice in Philosophy. Between sound and silence. Reflections on the acoustic resonance and implicit ethicality of human language.” Available from https://homepage.univie.ac.at/arno.boehler/php/wp-content/Lagaay_POS3.pdf.

Mampe, Birgit, Angela D. Friederici, Anne Christophe, and Kathleen Wermke. 2009. Newborns’ cry melody is shaped by their native language. Current

Newton, Aline and Rebecca Carli-Mills. 2022. “CE4.22 Tonic Function Study Group III.” Dr. Ida Rolf Institute. Online weekly. October 3rd to December 19th.

Paoletti, Serge. 2006. The fasciae: Anatomy, dysfunction, and treatment. Seattle, WA: Eastland Press.

Porges, Stephen W. 2017. The pocket guid to the polyvagal theory: The transformative power of feeling safe. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

The One Being Project. 2023. “Pádraig Ó Tuama.” Available from https://onbeing.org/author/padraig-o-tuama/.

Traditional Chinese Medicine Wiki. 2012. “The heart.” Available from https://tcmwiki.com/wiki/the-heart.

Wermke, Kathleen, Johanna Teiser, Eunice Yovsi, Paul Joscha Kohlenberg, Peter Wermke, Michael Robb, Heidi Keller, and Bettina Lamm. 2016. Fundamental frequency variation within neonatal crying: Does ambient language matter? Speech, Language and Hearing 19(4):211-217.

Wermke, Kathleen, Michael P. Robb, and Philip J. Schluter. 2021. Melody complexity of infants’ cry and non-cry vocalisations increases across the first six months. Scientific Reports 11(1):1-11.

Westbrook, Katherine E., Trevor A. Nessel, Marc H. Hohman, and Matthew Varacallo. 2022. Anatomy, head and neck: Facial muscles. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493209/.


voice; tongue; lupus; Seventh Hour; oral cavity; premovement; speech; language; face; sound; fascia. ■

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